Sun Style Baguazhang Double Palm Change

第九章 四象學
CHAPTER NINE: THE FOUR MANIFESTATIONS [i.e. DOUBLE PALM CHANGE]

四象者。兩儀各生一陰陽也。太極生兩儀者。八卦拳之奇耦也。復於兩儀之中。各加一奇一耦。以象太陰太陽少陰少陽而名為四象。四象即本拳之奇耦。各加一陰一陽。而分為金木水火也。在腹內則為心肝肺腎。在拳中則為前後左右。俗稱名為雙換掌也。言四象不及土者。太極即土也。拳中起躦落翻。動而未發謂之横。横者亦土也。因其生生不息謂之土。因其一氣運用謂之太極。太極也。土也。一而已。故不及土。僅言四象者。而土已在其中矣。夫四象旣有陰陽。則八卦相交。彼此相盪。一卦可盪於八卦之上。八卦相盪。更可重為六十四卦。按易一卦六畫。下三畫象天地人三才也。上三畫相盪。因而重之。象天地人三才各有陰陽也。以明拳中各法左旋右轉。皆有陰陽之式也。故左旋象下三畫。頭手足象天地人三才也。右轉象上三畫。因天地人三才各有陰陽也。八卦即四象之陰陽。六十四卦即陰陽配合之生氣。八卦成列。因而重之。則陰陽相交。自可生生無已。豈第六十四卦哉。雖至千卦萬卦。總不出乎六十四卦。六十四卦總是八卦。八卦總是四象。四象總是兩儀。兩儀總是一氣之流行也。紫陽讀參同契云。一自虛無兆質。兩儀因一開根。四象不離二體。八卦互為子孫。六十四卦於此而生。萬象變動於此而出。誠哉斯言。可為此拳之鑒矣。
The four manifestations are born from the dual aspects, which were generated by the grand polarity. Forming the solid lines and broken lines in the eight trigrams [active being represented by a single solid line, passive being represented by a single broken line], the dual aspects then have another solid line or broken line added on top of them. The result is the four manifestations: the greater passive [broken line added on top of a broken line], greater active [solid line on top of a solid line], lesser passive [broken line on top of a solid line], lesser active [solid line on top of a broken line]. Thus the four manifestations are the basic solid and broken lines with further lines of passiveness and activeness added on top of them. These four are each assigned associations: being associated to the elements of metal, wood, water, and fire, associated in the body to the organs of heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys, and associated in the boxing art to the directions of forward, back, left, and right. [The four manifestations as a boxing technique] are commonly known as the “double palm change”.
     The four manifestations do not include the element of earth. The grand polarity corresponds to earth. Within the boxing art, [the four manifestations make the actions of] lifting, drilling, dropping, and overturning. To act and not yet issue is to be in a flattened-out condition of activity, like the earth. The earth generates things endlessly because it is in continuous use, like the grand polarity. The grand polarity and the earth are in the place of the One, thus earth is not included among the four, for it lies between them all.
     As the four manifestations include the passive and active aspects, the eight trigrams interact with each other, shifting places with each other and getting placed on top of each other. The eight trigrams stacked in this way can further amount to sixty-four hexagrams. As per the Book of Changes, each hexagram is composed of six lines. The three lower lines represent the sky, ground, and mankind – the three substances. The upper three lines are piled on top of them and represent the passive and active qualities of the three substances. Understand that within the boxing art there are leftward circle walking and rightward circle walking, which each have a passive [rightward] and active [leftward] quality. Therefore leftward circle walking is associated with the lower trigram [whose influence rises up into the upper trigram], your head, hands, and feet representing the sky, ground, and mankind – the three substances. Rightward circle walking is associated with the upper trigram [whose influence percolates down into the lower trigram], the three substances each having a [corresponding additional] passive or active line.
     The eight trigrams are made from the passive and active aspects of the four manifestations, and then the sixty-four hexagrams are produced from the passive-active pairings [of the trigrams]. When the eight trigrams are arranged in such a way that they are stacked on top of each other, the resulting interaction between the passive and active aspects will generate things endlessly, and so why stop with the sixty-fourth hexagram? Because even if there were thousands [For instance, if we multiplied sixty-four by sixty-four, we would get four thousand and ninety-six dodecagrams.], they would never go beyond the basic sixty-four hexagrams anyway [and so to have thousands would be mostly redundant as well as spectacularly overcomplicated]. Furthermore, the sixty-four hexagrams would always be composed of the eight trigrams, the eight trigrams would always be made from the four manifestations, the four manifestations would always be made from the dual aspects, and the dual aspects would always be the result of the movement of the grand polarity.
     It says in Zhang Ziyang’s “On Reading the Three in Agreement”: “From nothingness came somethingness. The dual aspects then arose from the One. The four manifestations emerged from the two. The eight trigrams are the descendents of the four.” The sixty-four hexagrams then followed, as did the transformations of all phenomena. Approach these words sincerely, for they are mirrored in this art.

第一節 四象學 右式靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY (RIGHTWARD CIRCLE WALKING)

起點兩儀式。無論左旋右轉。皆可變換四象雙換掌也。先以右旋之。左手在前。右手在後。從正北往西順着圓圈轉去謂之右旋。
After beginning with the single palm change, whether circle walking to the left or right, you can switch to the double palm change. Start with going from the rightward circle walking, left hand in front, right hand behind, walking the circle from north to west.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 8

第二節 四象學 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

換掌時左足在前。右足隨後邁在前邊。足尖極力往裏鈎落下與左足尖相齊。遠近相離二三寸許。兩足後根極力均往外扭勁。腰塌住勁。兩胯裏根均往回抽勁。式似停未停。
When switching palms, do it when your left foot is forward. Your right foot then steps forward, the toes hooking in as far as they can, coming down so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. The heels of both feet are equally twisted outward as far as they can be. Your waist has an energy of sinking. Your hips have an energy of drawing in. The posture seems to stop yet not stop.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 9

第三節 四象學 靑龍返首
3. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

即將左手伸直往外擰勁。擰至大指朝下。小指朝上。手心朝外。左足抬起。足尖隨着左手擰時。一齊往外擺勁。落下左足後根與右足尖成為錯綜八字式。如圖形是也。兩足相離遠近。亦隨人之高矮。足落下時形雖往外擺。兩胯裏根亦均往回抽勁。內裏似乎開圓圈之意腰隨着左手往外擰。兩肩裏根亦均往回縮力。亦是含胸之意。右手仍靠着身子手心朝外。在左胳膊根窩下邊。推住勁肘往下垂着不動。式子身雖停而意未停。
Your left hand extends, twisting outward until the thumb is pointing downward, the little finger is pointing upward, and the palm is facing outward. Your left foot at the same time lifts and comes down with its toes swung outward. Your left heel is in line with your right toes and the feet are making a ninety degree angle, as in the photo. The distance between your feet depends on your height. Although the foot comes down swung outward, your hips have an energy of drawing inward, with an intention of being like the inner curve of a ring. Your waist goes along with the outward twisting of your left hand. The forward section of your shoulders also has an energy of shrinking in, with an intention of containing your chest. Your right hand is still close to your body, palm facing outward below your left armpit, and has an energy of pushing, the elbow dropped down and staying where it is. Although your body’s posture comes to a halt, your intention does not stop.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 10

第四節 四象學 右式黑虎出洞
4. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE (OPPOSITE SIDE FROM BEFORE)

即將兩手均向裏裹勁。裹至手心朝上。即將右手從左胳膊根窩下邊穿出。右足與右手一齊邁至前邊。與左足尖相齊。兩足尖相離遠近亦二三寸許。右肩亦極力望着左胳膊根窩下邊穿去。兩足後根亦均往外扭勁。兩胯裏根亦均往裏抽勁。腰仍塌住勁。式不可久停。譬如書句大長。字當中點點為讀句即一氣似斷而未斷之意也。
見兩儀右式四圖
Then your hands wrap inward until the palms are facing upward, your right palm threading out under your left armpit. Your right foot at the same time steps forward so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. Your right shoulder has a strong desire to thread through under your left armpit. Your heels are again twisted outward, your hips again have an energy of drawing inward, and your waist still has an energy of sinking. The posture must not pause long. Compare it to a lengthy sentence in a book. There may be a tiny pause with each comma, but there is a continuous flow of thought that does not get interrupted by such pauses. (This posture is like photo 4 of single palm change, but performed on the other side.)

第五節 四象學 鷂子鑽天
5. HAWK DRILLS INTO THE SKY

再將右胳膊靠着右耳。手極力往裏裹着勁往上穿去。穿至極處手心朝裏。身子隨着右手往上伸長。左手心朝裏與右手往上穿時。一齊往下挨着右胳膊裏根落下至肋。手指朝下。手背靠着身子望着右胯穿下。兩手分開要上下一齊皆到極處。左足與兩手分開時。即速抬起。足尖極力往上仰着。靠住右足裏脛骨。而時身子往下縮勁。腰亦塌住。右手可極力仍往上穿住勁。左手仍極力往下穿住勁。兩眼往上看着右手身子要穩住。
Then your right arm goes close to your right ear, the hand threading upward, wrapped inward as far as it can be so the palm is facing inward, your body going along with your right hand by extending upward. At the same time, your left hand, palm facing inward, goes downward along your right shoulder until at your ribs, fingers pointing downward, and with the back of the hand moving along your body, threads downward toward your right hip. Your hands spread apart in unison above and below to their limit. Your left foot at the same time quickly lifts, with the toes putting their energy into flexing upward, and goes close to the inside of your right ankle. Your body at this time has an energy of shrinking downward [despite stretching upward] and your waist continues to be sinking. Your right hand may thread upward as far as it can while your left hand threads downward as far as it can. Your gaze is upward toward your right hand. Your body should be stable.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 11

第六節 四象學 白蛇伏草
6. WHITE SNAKE HIDES IN THE GRASS

再將右手極力望着左肩尖前邊扣去。落於左胳膊上邊。身子隨着右手扣時。一齊往下縮矮。兩手再往前後分開。如同擺物一般。兩手腕均往外撑住勁。前後兩手虎口相對。兩胳膊皆如半月形式。左足與左手一齊往前邁去。足落下要半斜着如圖形是也。腰塌住勁身子往前撲去。小腹要放在大腿上。兩眼隨着右手看下來。望前邊左手看去。兩肩前後極力縮住勁。兩胯前後裏根亦極力縮住勁。此時腹內要似覺圓圈虛空一般。若是方能得着拳中之靈妙。
Then your right hand puts its energy into covering in front of your left shoulder and lowering until over your left arm, your body going along with the covering of your right hand by shrinking downward. Your hands then spread apart forward and back, as though they are each a pendulum. Your wrists having an energy of bracing outward, the tiger’s mouths are facing each other front and back, and both arms are making semicircles. Your left foot steps forward in unison with your left hand and should be pointing diagonally when it comes down, as in the photo. Your waist has an energy of sinking while your body is pouncing forward. Your lower abdomen should settle onto your hips. Your gaze follows your right hand downward, then goes forward toward your left hand. Your shoulders and hips shrink in as much as they can. The inside of your body should now feel like the emptiness within a circle. If done in this way, you will then be able to obtain the subtleties within this boxing art.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 12

第七節 四象學 右式黑虎出洞
7. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE (SAME DIRECTION AS IN POSTURE 4)

再將兩手極力均向裏裹勁至兩手心朝上。即將右手靠着身子。望着左胳膊根窩下穿出。手穿至極處。與左胳膊亦成一丁字形式。右足與右手同時。邁至與左足尖相齊。落下遠近相離二三寸許。兩足後根亦均往外扭勁。兩胯裏根亦均往回抽勁。腰要塌住勁隨着手穿時往左邊擰勁。亦同擰繩子相似。而時身子之勁。亦如同表條上滿之意。但內中總要虛空之意。內中何以能虛空之意。即着兩肩兩胯裏根。皆往回縮勁。則胸中自然有虛空之意。而腹內亦不能有努氣壅擠之患也。
見兩儀右式四圖
Then your hands wrap inward as far as they can so the palms are facing upward, your right hand moving close to your body and threading out under your left armpit to its limit, making a T shape with your left arm. Your right foot at the same time steps up, coming down so the toes of both feet are again pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. Your heels are again twisted outward and your hips again have an energy of drawing inward. Your waist has an energy of sinking as it follows your right hand to the left, again turning as though it is a rope being twisted. The energy of your body is again like winding up a watch to its full extent. However, there should always be an intention of emptying inside. This is achieved by the shoulders and hips shrinking in, naturally producing a sense of emptying within the chest and also preventing strain from being able to manifest in the body. (See photo 4 of single palm change, but performed on the other side.)

第八節 四象學 靑龍轉身
8. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

身子再往左轉走時。先將右足往前直着邁去落下兩足相離遠近。亦仍隨乎人之高矮。總之無論何項步法。前走後退要自然為至妙處。右手隨着右足邁時。連穿代伸代往外擰勁。左手與右手。一並均往外擰勁。兩足隨走兩手腕隨着極力往外擰勁。擰至右手食指朝上直立。亦與圓圈中虛處相對為準則。手指高矮仍與眉齊。左手亦仍極力靠着身子。一氣推至左胳膊肘處。食指朝上穩住。腰亦隨着右手。向左邊如同擰繩子相似擰去。兩眼亦看前手食指稍。兩手腕擰時。兩胳膊中曲亦仍朝上。兩肘仍朝下。兩手腕擰勁時亦不擰之甚易。亦似覺擰不過來的意思。兩手腕往上托。兩手虎口又往前推之意。二者均停不可顯露。兩肩亦極力一齊往回抽勁。兩手亦許三五步擰過來。亦許轉走週圈擰過來亦勿拘
Then walk a leftward circle, first stepping out with your left foot, coming down at a distance which depends on your height. Always, regardless of the footwork, be it advancing or retreating, it will be most effective if it is performed with naturalness. Your right hand goes along with the step of your right foot by threading then extending then twisting outward, your left hand twisting outward at the same time. As your feet walk, your wrists twist outward as far as they can so that your right forefinger is standing upright, which should be in line with the center of the circle, the finger at eyebrow level. Your left hand, staying close to your body, puts its energy into continuously pushing toward your left [right] elbow, the forefinger pointing upward, and your hands stabilize in that position. Your waist follows your right hand by turning to the [left] right like a rope being twisted. Your gaze goes toward the tip of the forefinger of your front hand. As your wrists twist, the forearms bend in to point upward, elbows still pointing downward, and the twisting of your wrists must not be so comfortable that you feel they have not twisted all the way into place. Your wrists prop up your tiger’s mouths and have an intention of pushing forward, but must not visibly do so. Your shoulders have a strong energy of drawing in. Your hands get twisted into position after about three to five steps, and may stay in that position for as many circuits around the circle as you please.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 13

要法亦與兩儀走步換式。上下相連內外一氣之理相同也。此四象練法隨分四侯則為起承轉合之意。實即一氣串成之道也。習者要知之。
As in the walking and switching postures of the single palm change, have coordination between your upper body and lower, and cooperation between inside and out, same as before. There is in the double palm change an intention of dividing it into four stages – begin [postures 1 & 2], develop [3 & 4], express [5 & 6], and finish [7 & 8] – though in practice it is actually one continuous action. You have to be aware of this.

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